Amazonian: the current historical epoch of Mars (present to 2.9 bya)

Ascension Drive (A.D.): a robotics company

Ascraeus Mons: the tallest of the Tharsis Montes shield volcanoes

Buoy: a communications network used at and between many research stations

breakdown: large, loose blocks of cave rock that have fallen from the ceiling

“elmo”: colloquial of LMO, or Low Martian Orbit

EVA: Extra-Vehicular Activity; work requiring a life-support suit

Erebus: Mt. Erebus, the most active volcano in Antarctica. Named after the Greek personification of darkness

Devotion: a US Martian research station

First Wave Initiative (FWI): an international program supporting the first permanent colonists of Mars

Gobero: an archeological site of the prehistoric Green Sahara, and home to ancient cultures

GPR: Ground-Penetrating Radar

Hadean Eon: A volatile geologic period of the Earth’s development (4- 4.6 bya)

harmattan: seasonal African dust storm

Hesperian: the second historical epoch of Mars (approx 2.9 to 3.7 bya)

lava tube: a channel through which lava moves, or has moved

LEVi: Levitating Imager, an artificially intelligent semi-autonomous geological survey robot, specializing in the exploration and mapping of extreme environments

LiDAR: “light radar” used to survey geological features

mare: Latin for “sea”

mons: Latin for “mountain”

muonography: a type of deep-earth imaging utilizing muon particles

Noachian: the first historical epoch of Mars (approx 4.5 to 3.7 bya)

Orpheus: A mythological figure known for his descent into the underworld

phreatic: a type of water movement that dissolves a channel through rock in all directions, creating a phreatic cave with a roughly oval cross section

Phyllosian: the first mineral epoch of Mars, characterized by the formation of clays in a warm, wet environment

planitia: Latin for “plain”

PLSS: Portable Life Support System

PMR: Proton Magnetic Resonance. A method of detecting groundwater via excitation of hydrogen molecules

Point Intersection: the oldest and largest International Martian research community and transportation hub

SHF: Super High Frequency, a high-capacity radio frequency used in data transmission

shield volcano: a type of volcano characterized by highly fluid lava flows and a low, shield-like profile

shortwave: radio transmission and radar signal used on Mars

Siderikian: the current mineral epoch of Mars, characterized by the production of red iron oxides

sonar: sound propagation used to detect objects underwater

Tharsis Montes: three shield volcanoes of the Tharsis region

Theiikian: the second mineral epoch of Mars, characterized by minerals formed by volcanic activity

vadose: a type of water movement that dissolves a channel through rock straight downwards, creating a canyon-like vadose channel

yardang: a wind-carved rock typically found in desert areas